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At Winsor & Newton, we pride ourselves on adapting to progress and instigating change in our industry. Our extensive archives are full of objects that showcase our proudest innovations, including this display tracking the evolution of the paint tube.
The metal paint tube was first invented by American oil painter John Goffe Rand as a way of transporting paints to use outside. The tubes were in fact syringes which were used to squeeze out paint and preserved the paint for a longer time, allowing artists increased flexibility and the possibility of a larger palette, as colours took longer to perish.
Upon hearing of this stunning innovation William Winsor immediately sought the patent, as Winsor & Newton were the only colourmen producing moist watercolour. Once the patent was secured, Winsor added one essential improvement to this design: the all-important screw cap. Thus the paint tube we know and love was born.
The left hand panel (A) shows an injection of the marker diI placed at the cranial pole of the straight heart tube in a mouse embryo. The embryo was permitted to grow until the tube had looped. Subsequent to looping, as shown in the right hand panel (B), the marker is found proximal to the interventricular groove, showing that the more distal part of the right ventricle and outflow tract have been recruited from a secondary heart field.
The NAR Chest Tube Insertion Kit is designed to provide the necessary equipment needed to perform emergency chest tube thoracostomy. The compact and lightweight kit is packaged in an easy to open, vacuum sealed pouch, the kit can be stored in your kit or crash cart.
January 19, 2022 Update: The FDA expanded the medical device shortage list to include all blood specimen collection tubes. For details, see the Blood Specimen Collection Tube Conservation Strategies - Letter to Health Care and Laboratory Personnel.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is aware that the U.S. is experiencing significant interruptions in the supply of sodium citrate blood specimen collection (light blue top) tubes because of an increase in demand during the COVID-19 public health emergency and recent vendor supply challenges.
The FDA also recommends health care and laboratory facilities develop and implement the above strategies to minimize the use of these tubes and maintain the quality and safety of care for patients for whom testing is medically necessary.
On June 10, 2021, the FDA added these tubes (product codes GIM and JKA) to the section 506J of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act device shortage list during the COVID-19 public health emergency.
On July 22, 2021, the FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to Becton Dickinson for certain sodium citrate blood specimen (light blue top) collection tubes used to collect, transport and store blood samples for coagulation testing to aid in the identification and treatment of coagulopathy in patients with known or suspected COVID-19.
A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.
A doctor may be able to suggest a possible diagnosis based on medical history. For example, a woman may have had a burst appendix in the past. If the woman has had difficulty conceiving, this could suggest blocked fallopian tubes as a likely cause.
If surgery is unsuccessful, a doctor may recommend in vitro fertilization (IVF). IVF involves placing fertilized eggs directly into the womb, which means that the fallopian tubes are not involved in pregnancy.
When planning a pregnancy, it can be a good idea for a person to think about their medical history. This can include risk factors for blocked fallopian tubes, such as whether a woman has had surgery in this area of her body or a relevant infection. These considerations may help to diagnose a possible cause of infertility.
The outlook for fertility is considered to be reasonably good if only one tube is affected or scarring is minimal. If surgery to treat blocked fallopian tubes is not successful, IVF might be an option.
There are many rumors and discussions regarding which type of shock absorber is better, the Mono-tube or the Twin-tube Mono-tube and twin-tube are known as two different types of suspension systems that each work in very different ways.
In a mono-tube shock absorber, the shocks components are contained within one tube. A mono-tube system contains a shell case which works as a cylinder. Within that cylinder you would find a piston valve, oil, and gas. The construction of a mono-tube does also include some differences compared to the twin-tube design. A mono-tube design utilizes a free piston which separates the oil chamber from the gas chamber within the shell case.
Single ended self-starting lamps are insulated with a mica disc and contained in a borosilicate glass gas discharge tube (arc tube) and a metal cap. They include the sodium-vapor lamp that is the gas-discharge lamp in street lighting.
Single-crystal artificial sapphire tubes were also manufactured and used for HPS lamps in the early 1970s, with a slight improvement in efficacy, but production costs were higher than for polycrystalline alumina tubes.
Low-pressure sodium (LPS) lamps have a borosilicate glass gas discharge tube (arc tube) containing solid sodium and a small amount of neon and argon gas in a Penning mixture to start the gas discharge. The discharge tube may be linear (SLI lamp) or U-shaped. When the lamp is first started, it emits a dim red/pink light to warm the sodium metal; within a few minutes as the sodium metal vaporizes, the emission becomes the common bright yellow. These lamps produce a virtually monochromatic light averaging a 589.3 nm wavelength (actually two dominant spectral lines very close together at 589.0 and 589.6 nm). The colors of objects illuminated by only this narrow bandwidth are difficult to distinguish.
LPS lamps have an outer glass vacuum envelope around the inner discharge tube for thermal insulation, which improves their efficiency. Earlier LPS lamps had a detachable dewar jacket (SO lamps). Lamps with a permanent vacuum envelope (SOI lamps) were developed to improve thermal insulation. Further improvement was attained by coating the glass envelope with an infrared reflecting layer of indium tin oxide, resulting in SOX lamps.
Since the high-pressure sodium arc is extremely chemically reactive, the arc tube is typically made of translucent aluminum oxide. This construction led the General Electric Company to use the tradename \"Lucalox\" for its line of high-pressure sodium lamps.
At end of life, high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps exhibit a phenomenon known as cycling, caused by a loss of sodium in the arc. Sodium is a highly reactive element and is lost in a reaction with the aluminum oxide of the arc tube. The products are sodium oxide and aluminum:
As a result, these lamps can be started at a relatively low voltage, but, as they heat up during operation, the internal gas pressure within the arc tube rises, and more and more voltage is required to maintain the arc discharge. As a lamp gets older, the maintaining voltage for the arc eventually rises to exceed the maximum voltage output by the electrical ballast. As the lamp heats to this point, the arc fails, and the lamp goes out. Eventually, with the arc extinguished, the lamp cools down again, the gas pressure in the arc tube is reduced, and the ballast can once again cause the arc to strike. The effect of this is that the lamp glows for a while and then goes out, typically starting at a pure or bluish white then moving to a red-orange before going out.
LPS lamp failure does not result in cycling; rather, the lamp will simply not strike or will maintain the dull red glow of the start-up phase. In another failure mode, a tiny puncture of the arc tube leaks some of the sodium vapor into the outer vacuum bulb. The sodium condenses and creates a mirror on the outer glass, partially obscuring the arc tube. The lamp often continues operating normally, but much of the light generated is obscured by the sodium coating, providing no illumination.
Agar slants are used for storing pure cultures for a moderately long term. There is minimal risk of contamination or of losing the culture due to the medium drying out because the small volume of air inside the tube and narrow opening combine to limit water loss and exposure to outside air, including dust and other particles. Preparing an agar slant We prepare slants by preparing agar in a beaker, distributing it into tubes, sterilizing the capped tubes, and laying them at an angle to make a slanted surface as they cool.
Aseptically remove the cap and transfer material from a single isolated colony to the agar surface. To transfer material to a slant we hold the tube at an angle, loosen the cap so that it can be pulled straight off, and pick up some culture from a single colony. With the colony material on the loop, remove the cap using the little finger of the hand holding the loop, pass the mouth of the tube quickly through the flame (optional), then insert the loop or stick into the tube. With the end of the loop or stick touching the agar surface near the bottom, move it back and forth slightly as you gradually pull it up toward the top of the slant. Remove it, again pass the mouth of the tube through a flame (optional), and replace the cap. Different investigators and technicians will conduct the inoculation differently, as can be seen in videos on the web. Some do not flame the mouth of the tube, others use different ways of transferring material to the agar surface. In our lab you will have the option of using a loop to conduct the transfer (flame required) or using a sterile inoculating stick (no flame